Organotypic cultures of precision-cut rat lung slices are exposed three hours to 5 dilutions of a continuous exhaust flow. The exhausts from three fuelings are tested (filtered and not): gazole, gazole/RME mixture (70 % / 30%) and RME.Different parameters are assessed: ATP and GSH (cell viability), TNFα production (proinflammatory response) and nucleosomes (apoptosis). After exposure, the ATP level is only modified by the highest concentrations of gazole/RME or RME exhausts (filtered and not); the GSH level is decreased for each of the concentrated filtered exhausts. Moreover, only the whole gazole exhaust leads to a modification of TNFα production. At last, the whole gazole exhaust leads to an increase of slice nucleosome level in a dose-dependent way; RME supplementation or filtration significantly attenuates this effect.In conclusion, whole diesel exhaust induces an inflammatory response and DNA alterations, which are partially or totally reversed by filtration and/or by RME supplementation.