Integrated Orbiter/International Space Station Air Quality Analysis for Post-Mission 2A.1 Risk Mitigation 2000-01-2250
Crewmember ingress of the International Space Station (ISS) before that time accorded by the original ISS assembly sequence, and thus before the ISS capability to adequately control the levels of temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide, poses significant impacts to ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS). Among the most significant considerations necessitated by early ingress are those associated with the capability of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Orbiter to control the aforementioned levels, the capability of the ISS to deliver the conditioned air among the ISS elements, and the definition and distribution of crewmember metabolic heat, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
Even under the assumption that all Orbiter and ISS elements would be operating as designed, condensation control and crewmember comfort were paramount issues preceding each of the ISS Missions 2A and 2A.1. However, crewmember discomfort during Mission 2A.1, in addition to evidence provided by flight data and observations, suggested that countermeasures would be necessary for future flights where the Orbiter provides primary control.
A review of Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) assumptions and analytical methods that describe ECLS transport phenomena was accomplished in order to ensure the veracity of future analyses. Subsequently, various analyses and interpretations of Mission 2A.1 flight data provided the necessary information to help understand the probable causes of the flight environment. With cooperation between the SSP and ISSP, countermeasures were devised for Mission 2A.2 that would likely improve the delivery of conditioned air by the Orbiter to the ISS as well as within the ISS elements.