Space Radiation Exposure Estimates to Female Astronauts Using the Computerized Anatomical Female Model 2000-01-2413
In an earlier paper, we presented space radiation exposure estimates to male astronauts using the Computerized Anatomical Male (CAM) model. In this paper, the Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF) model was utilized to calculate the space radiation exposure estimates to female astronauts for several altitudes ranging from 375 km to 450 km at an orbital inclination of 51.6 deg for both solar minimum and solar maximum conditions. Astronauts in space will be exposed to the trapped (Van Allen) proton and electron environment as well as the naturally occurring background galactic cosmic radiation and possibly high-energy solar particles emitted during periods of increased solar activity. Using a radiation shielding model of the International Space Station (ISS), shielding distributions were generated for a number of locations in the habitable ISS modules. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has identified several critical body organs (breasts, lungs, liver, kidneys, bladder, esophagus, thyroid, stomach, colon, and pancreas) that are at risk to radiation exposure. Using the CAF model numerous dose points were taken in each of the critical organs, and average female organ shielding distributions were calculated. In addition to these specific female organs, shielding distributions were also computed for the skin, blood-forming organs (BFO), and optical lens of the eye. Using particle transport and dose codes, the space radiation environment incident on the ISS and CAF shielding distributions was attenuated to compute the various organ exposures at the ISS locations of interest. These female exposure estimates are compared with the current astronaut exposure limits.