In this work, we describe an optical diagnostic based on infrared-absorption spectroscopy that can be applied to production-like engines to evaluate the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution. We have applied this diagnostic to a small-bore Diesel engine and performed measurements under both steady-state and transient conditions. The IR absorption diagnostic is shown to have a very low detection limit along with high precision, and produces highly credible results. Both crankangle-and cycle-resolved data were acquired in order to demonstrate the temporal measurement of the EGR concentration during the intake stroke, and during a sequence of cycles that define an engine transient. The results confirm the capabilities of the diagnostic, and in addition, illustrate interesting insight regarding the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution.