This paper describes the Lean Boost System, a gasoline engine concept for improved fuel economy. The system combines direct injection, lean operation and pressure charging, and allows significant reduction in swept volume, or ‘downsizing’. Engine tests have been undertaken which demonstrate the validity of the combustion concept. The strategy a typical manufacturer might adopt in order to meet future European requirements for CO2 emissions is proposed. Vehicle simulation results for typical North American and European vehicles are presented. Using the exhaust gas emission levels from engine tests and drive cycle simulation, aftertreatment requirements and configurations are considered.