Costs and Benefits of Head up Displays: An Attention Perspective and a Meta Analysis 2000-01-5542
This paper reports a meta analysis of all studies located in the literature that have compared head up versus head down display of equivalent information, as these displays support both tracking (e.g., flight path control) and discrete event detection. The data clearly indicate a HUD advantage for most tasks, except tracking during cruise flight and event detection during final approach. The latter HUD cost however is observed only when events to be detected are entirely unexpected, reflecting a form of cognitive tunneling. The meta-analysis also reveals an advantage for conformal over non-conformal HUD imagery.