The accepted paradigm in aerospace systems design was to design systems sequentially and iteratively to maximize performance based on minimum weight. The traditional paradigm does not work in the rapidly changing global environment. A paradigm shift from the norm of “design for performance” to “design for affordability and quality” has been occurring in recent decades to respond to the changing global environment. Observations were made regarding new tenets needed to bridge the gap from the old to the new. These tenets include new methods and techniques for designing complex systems due to uncertainty and mulit-dimensionality, consideration of the life cycle of the system, and the methods needed to assess breakthrough technologies to meet aggressive goals of the future. The Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection method was proposed as a possible solution to the paradigm shift. In particular, refinements of selection approaches were presented and included scoring models, technology frontiers, and resource allocation. Each of the approaches provided a different viewpoint of the same problem of selecting the best mix of technologies to maximize customer satisfaction. The new elements of the selection step were applied to a High Speed Civil Transport concept. This concept was chosen due to the technically challenging customer requirements and the need for breakthrough technologies over present capabilities. The new selection approaches deemed three technologies worthy of scarce resource monies for further development and include composite fuselage structures, hybrid laminar flow control, and advanced flight deck systems, such as synthetic vision. Finally, to meet imposed noise regulations, an advanced engine concept must also be pursued to ensure compliance with FAA regulations.