A single-stage dilution system has been designed to simulate the process of engine exhaust dilution in the atmosphere. An exhaust sample stream is introduced into a partial flow tunnel where it is diluted at a controlled rate. Temperature, relative humidity, dilution ratio and rate, and residence time are all adjustable. The system includes a turbulence generator to adjust the intensity of turbulence in the tunnel and a wake disk to control the initial mixing rate.
Numerical methods were used to simulate flow fields, velocity fields, and mixing profiles for gases and particles. Mixing profiles for a gaseous tracer and particles of different sizes were also determined experimentally and compared with the model predictions. Critical parameters that influence mixing profiles and dilution rates predicted by modeling were demonstrated experimentally. Predicted and measured normalized mixing profiles were found to be in good agreement.