The Emissions Performance of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels in a Prototype DI Diesel Engine 2001-01-0650
As part of a cooperative development program, six diesel fuels (a reference and five blends containing oxygenates) were evaluated under four steady-state conditions using a prototype 1.26-L 3-cylinder four-valve common-rail DI diesel engine. All of the fuels contained low sulfur (mostly < 5 ppm by mass), and they were chosen to determine the impacts of oxygenate volatility, concentration, and chemical type (paraffinic or aromatic) on exhaust emissions - with particular emphasis on particulate emissions. In addition to HC, CO, NOx and PM emissions measurements, emissions of the volatile portion of the PM and particle size were determined. Relative to the very low sulfur reference fuel, the oxygenated fuels reduced PM and NOx under some operating conditions, but produced little effect on either HC or CO emissions. Aliphatic oxygenates at 6 wt. percent oxygen in the reference fuel reduced simulated FTP PM emissions by 15 - 27 %. Of the variables studied, EGR level generally affected the particle size. The fuels, test protocol and results are described. Finally, significant differences in fuel effects are reported on the basis of statistical analyses of the data.