Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray 2001-01-2023
The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors.
High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall. The surface properties of the impact surface, such as the temperature, the presence of a preexisting liquid film also have a small effect on the amount of wetting or the wetted footprint; however, they have strong influence on what occurs just after impact or after a film is formed. The shadowgraph in particular shows that the plate temperature has a significant effect on vapor phase propagation. Generally, 10 ∼ 20% faster horizontal vapor phase propagation is observed along the wall at elevated temperature condition. For impingement onto a preexisting film, more splash and evaporation were also observed. Contrary to some preconceptions, there is not significant splashing and droplet rebounding from surfaces that are interposed in the path of the DI gasoline spray, especially for the oblique impact angle cases. There also appears to be a dense spray front consists of large sac spray droplets in the oblique impact angle cases. The bulk of the spray is not impacted on the surface, but rather is deflected by it.
The microscopic details as depicted by phase Doppler measurements show that the outcome of the droplet impaction events can be significantly influenced. Only droplets at the spray front have high enough Weber numbers for wall impact to wet, splash or rebound. Using the sign of vertical velocity, the time-resolved downward droplets and upward droplets are compared. The Weber number of upward moving droplets, which seldom exceeds unity, also decreases as the impact angle decreases, as the droplets tend to impact less and move along the wall in the deflected spray plume.