Hydrogen Vehicle Fueling Alternatives: An Analysis Developed for the International Energy Agency 2001-01-2528
Vehicles fueled by hydrogen produce virtually no pollutant emissions and are projected to become a serious alternative to hydrocarbon-fueled vehicles in the future. Current vehicle designs produce power by consuming hydrogen in either a fuel cell or a spark-ignition engine. Hydrogen can be stored on-board as either a compressed gas or a cryogenic liquid. Hydrogen-fueled vehicles need a ready source of fuel for routine use. The infrastructure to provide convenient fueling for passenger vehicles must be put in place in the near future, both in the US and internationally. Options for providing hydrogen fuel include electrolysis of water, reforming of hydrocarbon fuels at the fueling station; and transport of bulk hydrogen. This paper presents results of comparative analysis for passenger vehicle fueling options using either liquid or gaseous hydrogen.