Technologies for Carbon-Neutral Passenger Transport - a Comparative Analysis 2001-01-3248
Road transport has become a large source of CO2 emission and accounted in 1998 for about 27% of the CO2 emission in Sweden. Efficient energy use and the use of renewable energy sources are main options for reducing CO2 emission from vehicles in the future. In this study, the use of energy carriers based on renewable energy sources in battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) is compared regarding energy efficiency, emission and cost. The cost calculations include energy, environmental and vehicle costs. The potential for non-technical measures to contribute to a reduction of road transport CO2 emission is also briefly discussed and related to the potential for technical measures.
There is the potential to double the primary energy efficiency compared with the current level by utilizing vehicles with electric drivetrains. There is also major potential to increase the efficiency of conventional ICEVs. All the studied vehicles with alternative powertrains (HEVs, FCEVs, and HEVs) would have lower energy and environmental costs than the ICEV. The HEVs, FCEVs and BPEVs have, however, higher total costs than the future methanol-fuelled ICEV, if the vehicle cost is added to the energy and environmental costs, even if significant cost reductions for key technologies such as fuel cells, batteries and fuel storages are assumed. The cost differences between the various alternatives may, however, be relatively small and, with regard to the major uncertainties in the cost estimates, no certain winner for the future can today be chosen among the technical options (vehicles and fuels). Several of the promising technologies are, however, dependent on the development of common core technologies such as the electric drivetrain, thermal gasification of biomass, improved combustion technologies and batteries.