The Effect of Drive Cycles on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell System for Automotive Applications 2001-01-3454
The purpose of this system study was to compare the performance and fuel consumption of a pure fuel cell vehicle (i.e. with no battery included) with an internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle of similar weight in different drive cycles. Both light and heavy duty vehicles are studied.
For light duty vehicles, the New European drive cycle, NEDC [70/220/EEC], the FTP75 [EPA] and a Swedish driving pattern from the city of Lund [Ericsson, 2000] are utilised. The fuel consumption for these drive cycles was compared with ICE vehicles of similar weight, an Ibiza Stella 1.4 (year 2000) from Seat and a Volvo 960 2.5 E sedan (year 1995). For heavy duty vehicles, urban buses in this study, two drive cycles were employed, the synthetic CBD14 and the real bus route 85 from Gothenburg, Sweden.
It can be concluded that marked improvements in fuel economy can be achieved for hydrogen-fuelled light and heavy duty vehicles. The fuel consumption of a small fuel cell vehicle was 50% less than the corresponding ICE vehicle in both the NEDC and the FTP75. With proper dimensioning of the system components, e.g. the engine, further reductions in fuel consumption can be achieved. The range of more than 500 km with 5 kg of hydrogen in a 345 bar fuel tank was comparable to an ICE vehicle. If the pressure is raised to 690 bar, a driving range of 600 km could be achieved. As the auxiliary system counteracts the increase in fuel cell efficiency, raising the minimum operating voltage from 0.6 to 0.75 V in a 50 kW fuel cell system, provides only a 5% reduction in fuel consumption. A fuel cell bus operated in the CBD14 and the bus route 85, compared with diesel-fuelled urban bus of similar weight, demonstrates a reduction in fuel consumption of 33 and 37 % respectively.