Development of Relevant Work-Cycles and Emission Factors for Off-Road Machines 2001-01-3637
The total amount of exhaust emissions from diesel engines all over the world must be reduced. Off-road machines consume a considerable part of the diesel fuel used in Sweden and much of the exhaust emissions originate from these machines. Consequently, it is urgent to study different methods to reduce fuel consumption and the exhaust emissions from off-road machines. The test-cycles used to calculate exhaust emissions from off-road machines are developed for heavy on-road vehicles, e.g. trucks and busses. A pilot study at JTI indicates that calculation of the amount of emission based on these test-cycles may give completely wrong figures. More relevant test-cycles have to be established.
The objectives of the project presented in this paper are:
To study driving and load patterns in different field operations and transports using all kinds of off-road vehicles,
To generate data on emissions as a base for calculations of emissions from different field operations and transports by off-road vehicles,
To develop relevant static and transient load cycles,
To establish emission factors for different operations through measurements of emissions and computer simulation,
To propose methods in order to decrease fuel consumption and emissions,
To generate data concerning fuel consumption for different operations.
The studies are carried out partly in the field and partly in test stands. The field studies comprise contractor machines such as loaders, excavators, haulers, forest machines like harvesters and forwarders, tractors with different implements, working machines and vehicles for farm operations. In the field studies, the machines are equipped with sensors and data collecting systems for fuel consumption, engine speed, forward speed slip, temperatures of fuels, etc. The emissions are measured in engine test stands because this requires a laboratory for that type of measurement.
The project is conducted by
JTI - Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
SkogForsk, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden
The Swedish National Road Administration, Construction and Maintenance