RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS METHODS FOR VEHICLE SAFETY DEVICES 2001-06-0215
Vehicle safety devices, similar to new pharmaceuticals and medical devices, may be associated with injury risks as well as injury benefits. Available analytical methods from the public health, medical and vehicle safety fields are described. A literature review is provided that includes an overview of relevant principles of risk analysis, risk-benefit terminology, fields of application, types of risk-benefit analysis, methods of quantification, assumptions, data needs, treatment of uncertainties, and risk-benefit criteria. Several applicable quantification methods are further described, including Quality Adjusted Life-Years, Disability Adjusted Life-Years, and Normalized Injury-Fatality Costs. Data input sources are described, including accident sampling and analysis, and paired comparison test and simulation methods. Example applications are presented for car seatbelts, head restraints, driver and passenger airbags; motorcycle leg protectors and airbags; and all terrain vehicle rollover protection structures. In the context of historical trends in the public health, medical and transport safety fields, typical risk-benefit criteria are presented and described. Discussion and recommendations regarding potential applications, further development and standardization issues are provided.
Kimberly M. Thompson, John D. Graham, John W. Zellner
Harvard Center for Risk Analysis
International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles