An outlook on the lines of the technological evolution that the spark ignition and the Diesel engine must undergo in order to meet the increasing demand for improved fuel economy and very low emissions of the next years is given. As regards the gasoline engines, the fuel economy increase is the main target, to be achieved with technologies able to meet future emission limits, like stoichiometric direct injection or VVA systems. The introduction, even if on a limited scale, of the CNG and LPG electronic injection technology could give a valuable contribution not only to the CO2 emission reduction of spark ignition engines, but above all could be the only practicable solution in the short and medium term to the problem of the pollution of the urban areas. The Direct Injection Diesel engines, which share in the European market is increasing non-stop, will have to tackle the problem of more severe emissions limits, in 2005 and later on. The Fiat approach to this problem will be shown and some new ideas about the achievement of a more clean Diesel combustion will be illustrated as well.