Browse Publications Technical Papers 2002-01-0021

Finite Element Analysis Using Muscles Elements and Experimental Analysis with a New Flexible Neck Model of Whiplash Injuries in Rear-End Collisions 2002-01-0021

Whiplash injuries occur frequently as a result of rear-end car collisions. Therefore, we wanted to develop a finite element model incorporating muscle actions to analyze the causes of such injuries. The results of the finite element analysis and experiments on volunteers subjected to rear-end collisions at 8 km/h were compared. The results with and without muscle actions indicated that muscle actions influence the behavior of the neck of a driver involved in a rear-end collision.
For the experimental analysis, sled tests at 11 km/h using a new flexible neck model were carried out. Shear displacement in the planes of the intervertebral disks of both the upper and lower cervical vertebrae was observed. We concluded that shear displacement would damage soft tissues and, therefore, appears to be one of the most important mechanisms that cause whiplash injuries.


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