Investigation of Ocular Injuries from High Velocity Objects in an Automobile Collision 2002-01-0027
The purpose of this study was to investigate ocular injuries from high velocity objects projected during an automobile collision. A computational model of the human eye was developed that included ocular structures such as the orbital fatty tissue, extraocular muscles and bony orbit. In order to validate the model, the results predicted by the model were compared to those previously found experimentally. In these experiments, porcine eyes were impacted with foam particles representative of those released during the deployment of an airbag through a seamless module cover. After simulating the identical experimental conditions, the results predicted by the model were in agreement with those found experimentally. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effect of these anatomical boundary conditions. Using MADYMO, a glass particle was projected into the eye. With the fatty tissue and muscles in place, a maximum Von Mises stress of 12.8 MPa occurred in the cornea. Without the muscles, the stress decreased to 12.0 MPa. By removing the fatty tissue and fixing the posterior pole, the stress increased to 15.7 MPa. In addition, the eye model includes material properties up to rupture making it suitable for large deformation applications. The model proved effective at simulating ocular impacts from various particles in the event of an automobile accident. The results predicted by the eye model agreed with those found experimentally, and fatty tissue and extraocular muscles were found to have a significant effect on the results.