Chemical Speciation of Exhaust Emissions from Trucks and Buses Fueled on Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and CNG 2002-01-0432
A recently completed program was developed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different truck and bus fleets operating in Southern California. The primary test fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO, a BP company, and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. A test fleet comprised of heavy-duty trucks and buses were retrofitted with one of two types of catalyzed diesel particle filters, and operated for one year.
As part of this program, a chemical characterization study was performed in the spring of 2001 to compare the exhaust emissions using the test fuels with and without aftertreatment. A detailed speciation of volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, carbonyls, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzo-p-furans (PCDF), inorganic ions, elements, PM10, and PM2.5 in diesel exhaust was performed for a select set of vehicles. The testing was carried out on four diesel vehicles and two compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, using a representative California diesel fuel, ECD-1, and ECD, all with and without DPFs. One diesel vehicle was also tested with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel fuel. The CNG vehicles were tested using motor vehicle-grade compressed natural gas.
Results presented in this paper provide vehicle emissions profiles for total particulate matter (TPM), PM10 and PM2.5, inorganic ions, elements, and VOCs. Ethene, C2-C5 olefins, BTEX, and benzene have been highlighted due to their high reactivity or toxicity for the diesel and CNG vehicles. Additional speciated exhaust emissions will be published in a future paper.
The TPM and particle-bound element emissions are greatly reduced on vehicles equipped with aftertreatment devices and the CNG vehicles. The DPFs effectively reduce the light olefins and EC/OC. Emissions of particle-bound inorganic ions are very low for all vehicles, regardless of fuel/aftertreatment.
Citation: Lev-On, M., LeTavec, C., Uihlein, J., Alleman, T. et al., "Chemical Speciation of Exhaust Emissions from Trucks and Buses Fueled on Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and CNG," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0432, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-0432. Download Citation
Miriam Lev-On, Chuck LeTavec, Jim Uihlein, Teresa L. Alleman, Douglas R. Lawson, Keith Vertin, Gregory J. Thompson, Mridul Gautam, Scott Wayne, Barbara Zielinska, John Sagebiel, Sougato Chatterjee, Kevin Hallstrom
BP, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, West Virginia University, Desert Research Institute, Johnson Matthey Catalysts and Chemical Division, Engelhard Corporation
SAE 2002 World Congress & Exhibition
Diesel Exhaust Emission Control 2002: Particulate Filters-SP-1673, SAE 2002 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants-V111-4