3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design 2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design.
A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage. Many factors affect the leak rate of a gasket, such as surface finish, fluid properties and pressure, material hardness and contact stress between the mating surfaces, of these contact stress is one of the most important factors for the gasket sealing performance. In this paper, several gasket designs are studied to demonstrate how a 3D FE analysis can help to resolve design problems.