Measuring the Fractional Efficiency of Diesel Particulate Filters 2002-01-1007
To meet stringent emission regulations, particulate filters will be required for diesel engines. Effective filters should reduce both the mass and number concentrations of particulate matter. For this reason, the performance of diesel particulate filters (DPFs) should be evaluated by measuring both gravimetric and fractional efficiency. This paper reports on a method developed for measuring particulate emissions on a mass and number basis. A two-stage dilution process was used in which the entire engine exhaust gas is directed into a primary dilution tunnel with a critical flow venturi. This constant volume system maintains proportional sampling throughout temperature excursions. A portion of the diluted exhaust gas is directed to a secondary dilution tunnel, for further dilution and determination of particle size distribution using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The engine was run at ISO 8178 modes. Results obtained using the procedure were used to calculate fractional efficiencies for a DPF. Mechanisms contributing to the observed particle size distribution are discussed.