Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation 2002-01-1528
NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft.
Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the CL max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30⍛ or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased.
This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces and control effectiveness.