Measurement of Mass Emissions from In-Use Two-Stroke Engine Three-Wheelers in South Asia 2002-01-1681
Two-stroke engine two- and three-wheelers comprise over half of the total vehicle population in South Asia and, as such, are likely to be significant contributors to particulate air pollution in large cities. Because there are no standards for particulate emissions from two-stroke engine gasoline vehicles, there is very little data available quantifying their emission levels. This study examined the procedure for measuring particulate emissions from two-stroke engines which comprise predominantly liquid droplets, and measured mass emissions from in-use three-wheelers to examine the impact of the engine condition, lubricant type and quantity, and fuel quality. The results are compared to smoke emission levels.