The Applicability of Stainless Steel for Crash Absorbing Components 2002-01-2020
To increase crash performance in automotive vehicles it is necessary to use new techniques and materials. Components linked to crash safety should transmit or absorb energy. The energy absorbing capability of a specific component is a combination of geometry and material properties. For these components the chosen material should have high yield strength and relatively high elongation to fracture. These demands have led to increasing interest in the use of high strength stainless steels.
The relative performance of three high strength carbon steels and two high strength stainless steel grades was evaluated through intrinsic and simulative tests. The rear bumper for a Volvo Car model in current production was manufactured using the five sheets tested to verify formability and behaviour under load. The bumpers were clamped in a rig that allowed quasi-static impact tests to be made. The energy absorbing capabilities were evaluated by measuring force versus displacement during the impact test.