Residual Stresses in Cup Drawing of Automotive Alloys 2002-01-2135
Residual stresses in metals are caused by a number of processes such as inhomogeneous deformation, phase changes and temperature gradients. This investigation focuses on the residual stresses caused by plastic deformation of automotive metals. Such stresses are responsible for part springback and shape distortion in many manufacturing and assembly processes. Tensile residual stresses may lead to stress cracking and, in some alloys, to stress corrosion cracking which may ultimately lead to premature product failure. The residual stress potential of metals can be evaluated by using the Split Ring Test Method. The test can be used to evaluate the effect of materials on residual stresses in cup drawing. Drawn cups are used because they produce large amounts of residual stresses and, therefore, increase measurement accuracy and reduce experimental error. A closed form analytical solution is used to estimate residual stresses in split rings taken from sections cut from the drawn cups. Residual stress calculations based on the analytical model and on measurements of the gap in the split ring are compared with computer simulation results obtained from two commercial FEM codes.