Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines: Derivation by Toxicological Risk Assessment Methods 2002-01-2536
For long duration space flights, wastewater from humidity condensate, urine, and used hygiene water will be recycled to provide an adequate supply of potable quality water for the crew. Due to the diverse nature and multiple sources of contaminants entering the recycling system, it is a challenge to maintain the quality of product water such that no adverse health effects occur. NASA Johnson Space Center in cooperation with the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council (NRCCOT) has developed a science-based approach, taking into consideration space flight induced factors, to derive Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEG) for 1, 10, 100, 1000 days of consumption. This paper will discuss the ongoing process of setting SWEGs, how candidate chemicals were chosen for risk assessment, and how various toxicological data are collected and interpreted. Our goal is to help environmental engineers understand how the SWEGs they use for hardware design are developed. The risk assessments for four compounds are summarized as examples.