Radial and Tangential Forces, Tool Motion, and the Formation of Lobed Holes in Drilling 2002-01-2637
Out-of-round holes are formed as a result of tool motion during drilling. Tool vibration is driven by radial and tangential forces on the primary and secondary cutting edges. These forces in turn depend on the chip loads on each cutting edge, which in turn depend on the position of the tool at the current time and at the time of the previous tooth passage. A preliminary analysis based on balancing the cutting forces and the bending forces on the tool, shows that the characteristic frequencies of motion of the tool in the tool frame are near 3/rev, 5/rev, 7/rev etc. (corresponding to 2/rev, 4/rev, 6/rev) in the workpiece frame. These motions are consistent with the tool motion and hole form errors commonly observed on the shop floor. We will describe procedures for measuring the dependence of cutting forces on chip load, the development of simple equations for lateral motion of the tool, and solutions for the tool's behavior.