Browse Publications Technical Papers 2003-01-0029

Two-Step Variable Valve Actuation for Fuel Economy, Emissions, and Performance 2003-01-0029

Variable-Valve Actuation (VVA) provides improvements in engine efficiency, emissions, and performance by changing the valve lift and timing as a function of engine operating conditions. Two-Step VVA systems utilize two discrete valve-lift profiles and may be combined with continuously variable cam phasing. Two-Step VVA systems are relatively simple, low cost and easy to package on new and existing engines, and therefore, are attractive to engine manufacturers.
The objective of this work was to optimize Two-Step system design and operation for maximum system benefits. An Early-Intake-Valve-Closing (EIVC) strategy was selected for warmed-up operating conditions, and a Late-Intake-Valve-Opening (LIVO) strategy was selected for the cold start. Engine modeling tools were used to fundamentally understand the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes involved. A procedure was developed to rapidly and automatically process engine simulations for a wide range of engine operating conditions and valve train parameters including valve lift, duration, and timing.
Modeling results indicate that substantial improvements in fuel economy, NOx emissions, and performance can be achieved. Reduced cold-start HC emissions are also expected. A comparison to fully flexible VVA, Three-Step VVA, and dual-independent cam phasing (only) is presented.


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