Simultaneous Low Engine-Out NOx and Particulate Matter with Highly Diluted Diesel Combustion 2003-01-0262
This paper describes the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in a modern light-duty diesel engine under high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels. Simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM emissions was observed under lean conditions at several low to moderate load conditions using two different approaches. The first approach utilizes a throttle to increase EGR rate beyond the maximum rate possible with sole use of the EGR valve for a particular engine condition. The second approach does not use a throttle, but rather uses a combination of EGR and manipulation of injection parameters. A significant reduction in particulate matter size and concentration was observed corresponding to the reduction in particulate mass. This PM reduction was accompanied by a significant shift in the heat release profile. In addition, there were significant cylinder-to-cylinder variations in particulate matter characteristics, gaseous emissions, and heat release. A fuel penalty is associated with operating in the low NOx and low PM regime when there are no modifications to the injection strategy. Preliminary experiments indicate that the penalty can be eliminated or reduced to a few percent while still maintaining a significant reduction in NOx and PM. An improved understanding of this combustion regime will lead to improved EGR utilization for lowering the performance requirements of post-combustion emissions controls.