Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks 2003-01-0289
As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx, CO2, O2, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). A partial flow micro-dilution tunnel was used to dilute the sampled exhaust to make the PM and aldehyde measurements. The work was performed at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Test Center's (ATC) climate controlled chamber. ATC performed 37 tests on five class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1992 to 2001). One was equipped with an 11 hp diesel auxiliary power unit (APU), and another with a diesel direct-fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas a DFH heats the cab in cold weather. Both devices offer an alternative to extended truck-engine idling. Exhaust emission measurements were also made for the APU and DFH. Trucks were idled at a high and low engine speed in the following environments: 32 °C (90 °F) with cabin air conditioning on, -18 °C (0 °F) with the cabin heater on, and 18 °C (65 °F) with no accessories on. ATC test technicians adjusted the air conditioning or heater to maintain a target cabin temperature of 21 °C (70 °F). Each test was run for approximately three hours.
Comparison of the results from the APU to those from the idling trucks implies that use of an APU to replace truck idling gives fuel savings (and CO2 reduction) on the order of 60-85%, 50-97% reductions in NOx, CO and HC, and PM reductions of -20% to 95%. PM emissions from the APU were higher than the “best” idling truck engine cases. The diesel-fired heater had significantly lower emissions and fuel consumption than the APU. The potential for fuel savings and environmental benefits are readily apparent.
Results for PM emissions showed a wide range of emissions rates from <1 g/hr to over 20 g/hr, with the newest trucks in the 1-5 g/hr range. PM emissions generally decreased with an increase in ambient temperature and increased disproportionately with an increase in engine speed. Aldehyde mass emissions rate increased with both decreasing temperature and increasing engine speed. The mass emissions rate of regulated gaseous species generally increased with increasing engine speed. A comparison of PM measurements with the TEOM and the filter-based methods is presented.