Comparison of Methodologies for Chemical Measurement of Air to Fuel Ratio at Very Lean Conditions 2003-01-0566
Many different chemical measurement methodologies of air to fuel (A/F) ratio have been documented in technical publications [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8]. Each of these methods is derived from the same physical principles but they vary in simplifying assumptions and physical constants. All are well proven over time with test data, producing excellent results near stoichiometry. Few technical publications, however, include data at lean A/F ratios and none include data at the very lean A/F ratios at which new high-technology engines such as gasoline direct injection spark ignition engines may operate with stratified combustion. This paper presents a comparison of three A/F ratio measurement methods based on exhaust gas composition. The methods produce similar results when applied to feed-gas emissions, but results vary when applied to post-catalyst emissions measurements. Some theories that may explain this behavior are discussed.