Experiments for Establishing Pedestrian-Impact Lower Limb Injury Criteria 2003-01-0895
Previous lateral knee bending and shear tests have reported knee joint failure moments close to failure bending moments for the tibia and femur. Eight tibias, eight femurs and three knee joints were tested in lateral bending and two knee joints were tested in lateral shear. Seven previous studies on femur bending, five previous studies on tibia bending, two previous studies on knee joint bending, and one on shear were reviewed and compared with the current tests. All knee joint failures in the current study were either epiphysis fractures of the femur or soft tissue failures. The current study reports an average lateral failure bending moment for the knee joint (134 Nm SD 7) that is dramatically lower than that reported in the literature (284-351 Nm), that reported in the current study for the tibia (291 Nm SD 69) and for femur (382 Nm SD 103). While this research has demonstrated the importance of realistic boundary conditions, more research is necessary to determine a statistically valid impact threshold for the knee joint.