Browse Publications Technical Papers 2003-01-1057
2003-03-03

Model-Based Component Fault Detection and Isolation in the Air-Intake System of an SI Engine Using the Statistical Local Approach 2003-01-1057

The stochastic Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) algorithm, known as the statistical local approach, is applied in a model-based framework to the diagnosis of component faults in the air-intake system of an automotive engine. The FDI scheme is first presented as a general methodology that permits the detection of faults in complex nonlinear systems without the need for building inverse models or numerous observers. Although sensor and actuator faults can be detected by this FDI methodology, component faults are generally more difficult to diagnose. Hence, this paper focuses on the detection and isolation of component faults for which the local approach is especially suitable. The challenge is to provide robust on-board diagnostics regardless of the inherent nonlinearities in a system and the random noise present. In particular, the local approach is shown to simplify and reduce the complicated FDI problem to the standard problem of detecting changes in the mean value of a Gaussian vector with a constant covariance matrix. In doing so, the least square score is implemented as our primary residual, and the statistical properties of the so-called improved residuals are used to detect changes in the parameters of a parametric model. Applying the local approach, in both offline and online configurations, to a mean-value model of a spark-ignition engine, component faults in the air-intake system, namely small abrupt changes in the volumetric efficiency coefficient ηo and the throttle discharge coefficient Cd, have been successfully detected and isolated. The FDI methodology shows robustness to modeling errors and noise, proving the fact that a perfect model is not required to monitor a given system. Since unknown plant parameters are usually determined by identification techniques, which never yield perfect results, modeling errors are indeed expected in practice. Consequently, the local approach sheds promises for robust on-board diagnostics in the face of the overall nonlinear powertrain problem.

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