3D Head Models for Protective Helmet Development 2003-01-2176
In order to improve the fit and comfort of helmets, we developed digital head models that represent the anthropometric and morphometric variability found in the U.S. Navy. We analyzed the size and shape variation using two related approaches. First, we used Procrustes superimposition, which minimizes the distances between all landmarks of all subjects. This allowed us to visualize the variation in landmark distribution of the face and to test for statistical differences. Second, we extracted curvatures along the surface of the head. This allowed us to characterize the variation in the shape of the head.
To create a series of sized digital models, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to organize the variation in both the traditional measurements as well as the locations of the 3D landmarks. Using an adaptation of multivariate accommodation modeling we identified representative individuals who characterize 95% of the variation in size and shape. Simultaneously, we used traditional dimensions to divide the population into a specified number of sizes, and then used the shape contours to create a summarized head form representing the individuals in each size.