Knock and Combustion Characteristics of CH4, CO, H2 and Their Binary Mixtures 2003-01-3088
Hydrogen is normally produced through the steam reforming of fossil fuels, notably natural gas or their partial oxidation in oxygenated air. The products of these processes would normally produce the H2 in the presence of a variety of concentrations of CO, CO2, H2O and N2. There is increasing interest in employing such mixtures whether on their own or in mixtures with traditional liquid or gaseous fuels in S.I. engine applications so as to improve the combustion process and engine performance. The combustion characteristics in S.I. engines of gas mixtures that contain H2 and CO need to be established to provide key operational information, such as the variations in the combustion duration and the knock limits. This paper presents experimental data obtained in a single cylinder, variable compression ratio, S.I., CFR engine when operated in turn on CH4, H2, CO and their binary mixtures. The dependence of the knock limited equivalence and compression ratios of CO on the extent of presence of H-bearing additives such as CH4, H2 or H2O is presented and discussed. It is shown that the knock limits of dry CO deteriorate very significantly with the presence of relatively small amounts of CH4, or H2. The effects of the presence of some small amounts of H2O with pure CO were also shown to vary significantly, yet to a lesser extent than that encountered with CH4 or H2 addition. The variation in the combustion duration with the increasing presence of CH4 with CO shows a similar trend to that of the knock limited equivalence ratio. Such data can serve as the experimental basis for the validation of the corresponding values of predictions of the engine performance including knock limits.