Bio Fuels as Blending Components for Gasoline and Diesel Fuels 2003-26-0011
Bio-fuels are being viewed from the multi-dimensional prospective of depleting fossil fuels resources and promoting environmental health, energy security, support to agricultural sector and rural employment. Increased attention is being paid for the use of bio fuels production and their utilization in the transport sector. India being a major agricultural based economy with large scale dependence on imported crude oil will certainly benefit through the increased use of agricultural resources for producing bio fuels which could be blended with motor gasoline and diesel fuel. With high volatility in international oil prices, it is important that we must reduce our dependence on imports of oil for energy security of the country. Based on the success of the pilot projects started earlier with 5 % ethanol in gasoline, Government of India has already decided to blend 5 % of ethanol in gasoline on a commercial scale. Indian Oil Corporation Research & Development (IOC R&D) has also conducted an extensive programme for the use of ethanol upto 10 % in motor gasoline. Vehicle startability, driveability, emissions and durability testing conducted on select vehicles has shown that 10 % blends can be used without any engine modifications. Major benefit in the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons has been seen in case of 2-stroke vehicles fitted with catalytic converters. IOC R&D is also conducting experiments for use of ethanol in diesel for which suitable additive system has been developed. The field-testing with such additive treated ethanol-diesel blends is in progress. IOC R&D has also set up a pilot plant for the production of bio diesel, which can be blended with conventional diesel fuel. Various non-edible oil sources for production of bio diesel have already been identified. Extensive work for examining the utilization of such bio diesel as blending component of diesel fuel is proposed on automotive vehicles as well as Railway diesel locomotives. This paper includes the results of the work conducted so far at IOC R&D on use of ethanol in gasoline and also the proposed plan for further work on use of bio fuels in diesel engines.