Browse Publications Technical Papers 2003-32-0025

Summer Cold Start and Nanoparticulates of 4 Stroke Motorcycles 2003-32-0025


During the research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment Forests and Landscape (FOEFL) - and as a contribution to to the European project ARTEMIS*) analysis of limited and nonlimited emissions of motorcycles was performed.
Exhaust emissions measurements of two motorcycles without catalyst: 4-stroke 750 cc and 1100 cc have been performed in the present work.
Identical driving cycles have been repeated and the influence of the cooling duration on the emissions at cold start was investigated.
A cold start in the temperature range of 20 ÷ 25 °C can be regarded as a “summer cold start”.
As nonlimited emissions the nanoparticulate emissions at cold and warm operating conditions were measured by means of SMPS and NanoMe**). The measurements were performed at steady state and at transient operating conditions.
The present work cleared up several details about the emissions of strong motorized motorcycles. It can be stated, that the particle mass and nanoparticle emissions are very low for this class of vehicles. Important factors influencing these emissions are: the mixture richness and the oil consumption (general condition of the engine).


Subscribers can view annotate, and download all of SAE's content. Learn More »


Members save up to 43% off list price.
Login to see discount.
Special Offer: With TechSelect, you decide what SAE Technical Papers you need, when you need them, and how much you want to pay.