A Study of Dimethyl Ether(DME) Flow in Diesel Nozzle 2004-01-0081
Dimethyl ether (DME) holds promise as an alternative to diesel fuel. However, its physical properties are not similar to those of conventional diesel fuel. The P-V, bulk modulus and viscosity of DME are derived as a function of temperature and pressure. As a result, the Weber and Reynolds number of DME is very large as compared with that of diesel fuel. So, the spray characteristics of DME are not those of a liquid spray but similar to those of gas spray. The spray formation is strongly affected by the fuel flow in the nozzle. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experiments are examined to analyze the fuel flow in the nozzle. The DME physical properties make some difference to the flow in the nozzle, in comparison with those of diesel. As a CFD result, cavitation in the injection nozzle is more frequent with DME than with diesel oil. From experimental results, the temperature in the nozzle sac is higher with DME than with diesel oil. The state of DME in the sac changes from gaseous, liquid and to super-critical during injection. Frequent cavitation and the state change make DME a poor spray penetration characteristics at high engine speed and load.