Effects of Unloading and Strain Rate on Headform Impact Simulation 2004-01-0738
The current paper presents improvements of a previous single-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model with a nonlinear spring that could be used for preliminary design of headform impact safety countermeasures for normal impact with negligible headform rotation.
The unloading taking place along the elastic path has been dispensed with and a parabolic unloading path may yield more realistic force-deformation and deceleration-time behaviors when compared with test results. The effects of the modified unloading behavior on HIC(d) are illustrated with examples. Additionally, a new velocity-dependent yield force criterion is adopted for the spring element to represent strain rate sensitive countermeasures. It is observed that inclusion of strain rate effect can either increase or decrease predicted HIC(d) when compared with using only quasi-static yield force.