All-Wheel Drive Vehicle Energy Efficiency Evaluation 2004-01-0864
All-wheel drive (AWD) vehicle performance considerably depends not only on total power amount needed for the vehicle motion in the given road/off-road conditions but also on the total power distribution among the drive wheels. In turn, this distribution is largely determined by the driveline system and its mechanisms installed in power dividing units. They are interwheel, interaxle reduction gears, and transfer cases.
The paper presents analytical methods to evaluate the energy and, accordingly, fuel efficiency of vehicles with any arbitrary number of the drive wheels. The methods are based on vehicle power balance equations analysis and give formulas that functionally link the wheel circumferential forces with slip coefficients and other forces acting onto an AWD vehicle.
The proposed methods take into consideration operational modes of vehicles that are tractive mode, load transportation, or a combination of both.
The methods are applicable to any type of AWD vehicles including agriculture and military applications when evaluating the energy efficiency and designing a driveline system. Theoretical achievements are followed by examples of computation and experimental data.