Use of Throw Distances of Pedestrians and Bicyclists as Part of a Scientific Accident Reconstruction Method 2004-01-1216
Crash information, e.g. driving and impact speed, have to be determined from traces on the scene, as well as from examination of deformation patterns in order to assess the impact condition and the movement trajectories of the impacted body of bicyclists and pedestrians after car collision. Experts use the following information to calculate speed: Information on final position of vehicles, deformation pattern on vehicles, traces found on the road, such as braking and sliding marks, throw distances of pedestrians and cyclists and injury pattern, all these issues are given possibilities for reconstruction of the movement of the human body. While in car to car crashes the speed calculation is based on the momentum analysis and on energy balance hypothesis of classical physics, the calculation for pedestrian and bicycle accidents have to be based on traces only. The paper describes the possibilities of the use of throw distance as a reconstruction method. The paper also discusses the tolerance fields, compared to the results of crash tests. Throw distances and impact kinematics are shown for pedestrians and bicyclists at low and high impact speeds up to 100 km/h.