Browse Publications Technical Papers 2004-01-1414

Flow Losses at Circular T-Junctions Representative of Intake Plenum and Primary Runner Interface 2004-01-1414

One of the dominant sources of flow losses in the intake system of internal combustion engines (ICE) with log-style manifolds is the interface between the plenum and primary runner. The present study investigates such losses associated with the dividing flow at the entry to primary runner with geometries representative of those used in ICE. An experimental setup was constructed to measure the flow loss coefficients of T-junctions with all branches of circular cross-section. Experiments were conducted with seven configurations on a steady-flow bench to determine the effects of: (1) interface radius equal to 0, 10, and 20% of the primary runner diameter, (2) plenum to primary runner area ratios of 1, 2.124, and 3.117, and (3) primary runner taper including taper area ratios of 2.124 and 3.117. The last two categories employed 20% interface radii. The total mass flow rate was also varied to investigate the effect of Reynolds number Re on loss coefficients. Interface radii and primary runner taper were found to significantly reduce the losses. In the turbulent regime, loss coefficients were found to be reasonably independent of Reynolds number. A subset of results presented here was compared with the available literature.


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