Processing as a Tool to Enhance Product Shelf Life for ISS and Planetary Outpost 2004-01-2562
Application of different processing technologies has shown improvements in baked product quality with respect to firming of products during storage. However, use of processing as a tool has rarely been investigated as a means to enhance product shelf life for space exploration through the alterations in structures established within a product during baking.
Dough was mixed using three different mixers based on the kind of mixing motion used to develop gluten structure. The Farinograph uses a rotary kneading motion; the Kitchen aid® uses a planetary kneading motion, and the Bready machine uses a linear kneading motion. The extent of gluten development and the time required for optimal gluten development was different when dough was mixed using the three mixers. Gluten development in the Bready machine was limited and took a much longer time to develop whereas gluten development in Farinograph was the fastest, which would be desired on planetary outpost.
Breads baked from dough made using the Bready machine was the softest after 6 days of storage at room temperature, whereas breads baked using the dough mixed in Farinograph were the firmest following the same storage period. Breads baked in different ovens using different heating modes had significant differences in firmness following 15 days of storage. Bread baked using impingement oven were 45% softer than those baked using conventional ovens.
These results suggest that mixing techniques significantly influenced the extent of gluten development in dough. Baking conditions also yielded breads with different extent of firmness development following storage. It might therefore be possible to manipulate the mixing and baking conditions to design baked products with improved shelf life with respect to firmness for the International Space Station and planetary outpost, Moon or Mars.