The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Cold Start Urban Traffic Emissions for a Real World SI Car 2004-01-2903
The influence of ambient temperature on exhaust emissions for an instrumented Euro 1 SI car was determined. A real world test cycle was used, based on an urban drive cycle that was similar to the ECE urban drive cycle. It was based on four laps of a street circuit and an emissions sample bag was taken for each lap. The bag for the first lap was for the cold start emissions. An in-vehicle direct exhaust dual bag sampling technique was used to simultaneously collect exhaust samples upstream and downstream of the three-way catalyst (TWC). The cold start tests were conducted over a year, with ambient temperatures ranging from - 2°C to 32°C. The exhaust system was instrumented with thermocouples so that the catalyst light off temperature could be determined. The results showed that CO emissions for the cold start were reduced by a factor of 8 downstream of catalyst when ambient temperature rose from -2°C to 32°C, the corresponding hydrocarbon emissions were reduced by a factor of 4. There was no clear relationship between NOx emissions and ambient temperature. For subsequent laps of the test circuit the reduction of CO and HC emissions as a function of ambient temperature was lower. The time for catalyst light off increased by 50% as the ambient temperature was reduced. The results show that the vehicle used is unlikely to meet the new - 7°C cold start CO emission regulations.