Residual Gas Fraction Estimation: Application to a GDI Engine with Variable Valve Timing and EGR 2004-01-2943
The paper presents an original review and extension of existing mathematical models for on-line residual gas fraction estimation. The resulting model has first of all been extended to take into account also the presence of externally recirculated exhaust gas (external EGR), and then critically analyzed to highlight the importance of a correct Intake Valve Opening and Exhaust Valve Closing effective position identification. As shown in the paper, such quantities may be evaluated by using experimental data, either acquired in the test-cell or on a valve flow bench.
The main objective is to obtain a simple and reliable model (that could be run in real time within the engine control unit) also in presence of Variable Valve Timing (VVT, both on intake and exhaust valves) and external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. In fact, the two main contributions to residual gas fraction (backflow of the burned gas during the valve overlap period, and amount of gas trapped within the cylinder) are strongly affected by intake and exhaust valves timing, and EGR flow should be taken into account in order to determine the total exhaust gas mass within the cylinder at IVC. Therefore, real time estimation of residual gas mass and composition is crucial for designing VVT and EGR management strategies that allow an optimal control of the combustion process.
The new model has been applied to experimental data acquired on a 3.2 liter V6 GDI engine, equipped with intake and exhaust Variable Valve Timing systems. Tests were performed throughout the engine operating range for different combinations of intake and exhaust valve timings, while varying EGR flow. Model results are in good agreement with other measured quantities (such as Spark Advance angle and NOx emissions), and the proposed approach therefore represents a powerful tool for on-board optimal combustion control.