Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine 2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller. Comparison between a mass air flow (MAF) sensor and the ANN model during a typical dynamic maneuver shows a very good agreement and superior behavior of the network during the transient. Practical recommendations regarding the production implementation of the ANN are provided as well.