Indian Experience With The Use Of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends On Two Wheelers and Passenger Cars 2004-28-0086
To meet the twin problems of fuel scarcity and air pollution caused by the growing use of fossil fuels, many countries are using alternate renewable, clean burning fuels in motor vehicles. Presently more than 70% of our country's energy requirement is met through import. Ethanol, one of the most widely used and renewable eco-friendly fuels can be used as a blend with gasoline to meet the growing demand of oil consumption.
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas decided to commission pilot projects in the sugar producing states to examine the techno-commercial feasibility of using it on a large scale. In addition, R&D studies with ethanol gasoline blends were also initiated on new generation passenger cars and 2 wheelers. Ethanol gasoline blends in passenger cars have shown satisfactory vehicle startability and driveability performance at temperatures of 50 C and 450 C with marginal increase in acceleration timings in only few cases. This indicates that ethanol can be blended upto 10% in gasoline without any engine modifications or any major adjustments. Also significant reduction in CO and HC emissions were achieved with only marginal increase of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is expected with use of ethanol blends.
The field pilot projects conducted with 5% ethanol gasoline blends were successful and Government of India has now decided to mandate the use of 5% ethanol in gasoline in 9 States from the year 2003.
In this paper, we have discussed the results of the R&D programme of ethanol-gasoline blends with respect to startability, driveability and emission performance of two wheelers and passenger cars.
The paper also covers the experience during the pilot projects undertaken at 3 locations. The emission studies conducted on 2 wheelers with ethanol gasoline blends have indicated that vehicles fitted with catalytic converter can yield substantial benefit of emission reduction as both carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) will get reduced.