Side Impact Injury Risk for Belted Far Side Passenger Vehicle Occupants 2005-01-0287
In a side impact, the occupants on both the struck, or near side, of the vehicle and the occupants on the opposite, or far side, of the vehicle are at risk of injury. Since model year 1997, all passenger cars in the U.S. have been required to comply with FMVSS No. 214, a safety standard that mandates a minimum level of side crash protection for near side occupants. No such federal safety standard exists for far side occupants. The mechanism of far side injury is believed to be quite different than the injury mechanism for near side injury. Far side impact protection may require the development of different countermeasures than those which are effective for near side impact protection.
This paper evaluates the risk of side crash injury for far side occupants as a basis for developing far side impact injury countermeasures. Based on the analysis of NASS/CDS 1993–2002, this study examines the injury outcome of over 4500 car, light truck, and van occupants subjected to far side impact. The analysis was restricted to 3-point belted occupants. The paper evaluates the risk of far side impact injury as a function of struck body type, collision partner, delta-V, crash direction (PDOF), occupant compartment intrusion, and injury contact source. Injury risk is evaluated using the maximum injury severity for each occupant, by injury severity for each body region, and by Harm, a social cost measure.