Application of a Portable FTIR for Measuring On-road Emissions 2005-01-0676
The objective of this work was the development of an on-road in-vehicle emissions measurement technique utilizing a relatively new, commercial, portable Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectrometer capable of identifying and measuring (at approximately 3 second intervals) up to 51 different compounds. The FTIR was installed in a medium class EURO1 spark ignition passenger vehicle in order to measure on-road emissions. The vehicle was also instrumented to allow the logging of engine speed, road speed, global position, throttle position, air-fuel ratio, air flow and fuel flow in addition to engine, exhaust and catalyst temperatures. This instrumentation allowed the calculation of mass-based emissions from the volume-based concentrations measured by the FTIR. To validate the FTIR data, the instrument was used to measure emissions from an engine subjected to a real-world drive cycle using an AC dynamometer. Standard analyzers were operated simultaneously for comparison with the FTIR and the standard analyzer results showed that most pollutants (NOx, CO2, CO) were within ∼10% of a standard analyzer during steady state conditions and within 20% during transients. The exception to this was total HC which was generally 50% or less than actual total HC, but this was due to the limited number of hydrocarbons measured by the FTIR. In addition to the regulated emissions, five toxic hydrocarbon species were analyzed and found to be sensitive to cold starts in varying proportions. Finally, FTIR data was compared to results from a commercially available on-road measurement system (Horiba OBS-1000), and there was good agreement.