Jet-Wall Interaction Effects on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation 2005-01-0921
The effects of wall interaction on combustion and soot formation processes of a diesel fuel jet were investigated in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. At identical ambient and injector conditions, soot processes were studied in free jets, plane wall jets, and “confined” wall jets (a box-shaped geometry simulating secondary interaction with adjacent walls and jets in an engine). The investigation showed that soot levels are significantly lower in a plane wall jet compared to a free jet. At some operating conditions, sooting free jets become soot-free as plane wall jets. Possible mechanisms to explain the reduced or delayed soot formation upon wall interaction include an increased fuel-air mixing rate and a wall-jet-cooling effect. However, in a confined-jet configuration, there is an opposite trend in soot formation. Jet confinement causes combustion gases to be redirected towards the incoming jet, causing the lift-off length to shorten and soot to increase. This effect can be avoided by ending fuel injection prior to the time of significant interaction with redirected combustion gases. For a fixed confined-wall geometry, an increase in ambient gas density delays jet interaction, allowing longer injection durations with no increase in soot. Jet interaction with redirected combustion products may also be avoided using reduced ambient oxygen concentration because of an increased ignition delay. Although simplified geometries were employed, the identification of important mechanisms affecting soot formation after the time of wall interaction is expected to be useful for understanding these processes in more complex and realistic diesel engine geometries.